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The need by man to have specific impressions on patterns has been something important, and which has been able to develop for the longest time ever. The late years of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century were able to see a great deal of movements of art being able to develop. This is hence a paper that comes up with descriptive answers to a number of discussions and questions which include: one, history and background of Cubism; two, a discussion of Cubism and discussing about the artists and the works of Picasso, Braque, and Gris; three, From Cubism Movement: Its many modes; four, Fauvism: meaning and discuss at least three artists; five, Futurism: discuss art and discuss at least three artists; and finally, Dada: discuss art and discuss at least three artists.
Today, it is very true that many people are quite aware of what Cubism really is. Cubism was one of the greatest influential arts and style, which rocked the world in the twentieth century. The historical originality is known to lie in the principal creation of the painters Picasso Pablo and his associate, Georges Braque (Golding 23). Their painting career began in France, Paris in the years of 1907 to 1914. The original concept behind the Cubist style greatly dealt with or emphasized much on flat and two-dimensional surfaces of making the plane pictures. With that kind of approach, the two artists had been able effectively to reject some of the commonly applied traditional perspectives and techniques in art. This would effectively result in a newer invention of foreshortening and modeling, thus making the two individuals great painters of all times. During such developments, the Cubist painters had not been bound in copying forms, colour, texture or even space (Golding 67). On the contrary, they had the idea of presenting new ideas and realities in their paintings such that they could be able to depict radically objects and fragmentations. This made sure that their objects had their sides seen in a simultaneous manner.
After such developments, currently we have the typical paintings of Cubism showing clearly outlined letters, depiction of musical instruments, some pitchers, bottles, sometimes showing glasses, and even newspapers. There has also been the depiction of still lives and also human figures and faces. From historical studies, it will be noted that the name Cubism was derived from the work of Braque in 1908, which was described by the painter Matisse Henri, and his critic, Louis Vauxcelles to be composed of cubes, hence the name. This element of ‘cubes’ continued to inspire this kind of art. This saw them adding more colour, warmth, and advancing the receding effects on the paintings. The years of 1910 to the year 1912 saw the development of what is known as Cubism (Golding 51). This made the paintings to appear sculptural. The use of variations and planes were adopted during this time. Generally, the forms were generally dense and compact within the center.
After the Analytical Cubism, what developed next is the Synthetic Cubism. More and more interest continued to develop with the Analytical Cubism, and hence the years following 1912 saw a great development on the same subject matter, hence leading Synthetic Cubism. During this phase, the works mainly emphasized much on a number of varied combinations, or even the synthesis of commonplace forms to come up with a more synthesized patterns in a picture (John 53). During this period, colour started to be noted as an extremely important element when it comes to the development of different shapes in a picture or painting. There was also the need of coming up with pictures and paintings that were much larger and with many decorations on them. In addition, there was the necessity of having both smooth as well as rough surfaces brought together in a contrasting manner. This also included the use of non-painted materials and objects like newspapers, plain canvas and tobacco wrappers (John 77). This kind of approach was able to come up with a collage technique hence greatly emphasizing on the textural differences. Since then the Cubism art has been adapted in many parts of the world for its elegance.
As we have been able to note in the question above, there was a great deal of involvement and contribution by Picasso, Braque and Gris towards the Cubism form of art. Braque is known to have been born on 13th May 1882 and obtained his training from Le Havre school. From the year 1902 to the year 1904, Braque studied in Paris to and later attended Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Braque then began his early works in 1903 to 1905, which have been noted to have had great impressionism. He had been greatly influenced or impressed by the works of Andre Derain, Matisse Henri, and Maurice Vlaminck. His Fauve period was from 1906 to 1907 during which he used some softer undulating patterns as well as brilliant colors for his works. He later began to show much interest in his well-known architectonic composition, which would later define his volumes of work. A change in his art was noted in 1907 after rediscovering Paul Cézanne. This is the same time when he met Picasso and the two saw a good geometrization formations hence giving birth to Cubism art within three years (John 82). Some of the major works of Braque include the Terrace Hotel Mistral, Large Nude, and Viaduct at L’Estaque.
We as well cannot talk of this kind of art without mentioning Gris who was Spanish and moved to France, and a cubist painter. Gris became educated in the School of Arts and Manufacturing in Madrid and in 1906, he moved to Paris. It was here in Paris where he met the likes of Pablo Picasso and his French painter and friend, Georges Braque. The first Gris’s cubist painting is known to have borrowed much from the works of Picasso and Braque. He went ahead to develop the papier collage, which produced shape that had been cut out from paper materials and glued competently to a canvas through collage. During the period of the First World War, Gris is known to have been working in Paris. From the year 1922 to the yaer1924, Gris designed some beautiful ballets for a Russian producer, Diaghilev Sergey, also known as the The Temptations of the Shepherdess and La Colombe or The Dove. He also developed the Newspaper and Glasses forms of art for the first time ever. Most of Gris’s cubist paintings have been in lifes, and a good example is the Violin and Guitar, and the The Open Window. His paintings also included a number of musical instruments as well. His achievements have seen him being called the Musketeer with Cubism. Basically, Gris must have played a great role towards pushing Cubism to a new level before dying at the age of thirty nine years. His major pieces include Portrait of Picasso, The Mountain Canigou, the Man in Cafe, and Landscape with Houses at Ceret, among others (John 94).
Pablo Picasso is the founding father of Cubism with his friends and critics. He was known as the Spanish sculptor and a famous painter and one of the highly considered individuals in the arts of the twentieth century. He is acclaimed for his unique forms in arts and coming up with newer styles in painting as well as techniques. He was also able to become a great master of several media and at the same time being very prolific. This is because he was able to create over 20,000 pieces of works in art (John 102). Picasso has also been known to have played a major role during his Blue Period’ and the ‘Rose Period’ as well. Another thing he will always be remembered of is his Protocubism. There was his production of pictures and paintings that resembled some fractured pieces of glass and at the same time been able to give a good impression. This also destroyed the traditional idea of portraying nude bodies by having angular shapes and harsh patterns on his paintings.
Just as we have been able to note, the origin and developments of Cubism have been so important such that they have been able to develop in very many modes as proclaimed or motivated by the painters and artists. To begin with, we have the mode of Cubism itself, which developed because of the developments by Braque and Picasso. This came up with patterns, which had better impressions as compared to the traditional ones. Another important mode, which came about during this time, was the Protocubism, which was pioneered by Picasso. With this mode, Pablo Picasso came up with paintings that were able to represent the images of broken glasses and at the very time being able to bring out the very best image. This became a new approach, which was able to eliminate pictures, and paintings that had been comprised of naked women. This brought Cubism to a new level altogether (Alfred 36).
Cubism sculpture is another mode of Cubism that was able to develop during the time of Pablo. Analytical Cubism was also another acclaimed mode in which the paintings gave impressions of breaking down and other related forms. In addition, during the time, it should be noted that there was a great desire of having right-angled paintings and straight lines as well. Therefore, different modes of cubism have been able to develop within current artists and scholars who had to come up with closer and newer approaches similar to the ones of Cubism. While that has been the case with this kind of art, it has been noted that the Cubist style was able to dominate a number of decades during the twentieth century (Alfred 38).
Due to these many contributions and works by Picasso, Braque, and by Gris, among many others, it will be agreed that the modes of this kind of art have been able to grow beyond expectations. During the same period, more and more individuals and artists continued to come up with better approaches hence being able to make the kind of art more complex, dynamic and rewarding. The Cubism form of art was able to develop many modes, which created a movement in the field of art and practice, and thus being able to make a great contribution on the forms of art and similar developments during the years of the late nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries (Alfred 45). This kind of art has been able to make great contributions to the world of art, more than it would have been thought initially and during its original developments in the year of 1900s to 1910s.
In French, the world Fauvism is translated to mean wild beast. This would grow and become a kind of art movement, which developed in the same time with Cubism. The originality of this kind of movement is believed to have lied in the hands of Moreau Gustave who made greater contributions to the style (Freeman 10). Matisse is also known to have made greater contributions and inspired the developments of Cubism in such a big manner. When it comes to this style of art, it will be noted that most of the work is through paintings, and such paintings of Fauves had greatly been characterized by a number of seemingly irregular or wild brushing which also involved the use of strident and varied colors. As well, the major subject matter in this case had been in the retaining of a very high rate or degree on abstraction and simplification (Freeman 19).
This also borrowed much of work from Van Gogh’s great Post Impressionism. This has also been greatly fused with Seurat’s Pointillism. The major artists who contributed greatly to this kind of painting include Pail Signac who brought the idea of Impressionism. Derain’s work of 1905 has also been attributed a great role towards future developments of Fauvism. Other major influences towards this kind of art are Cezanne Paul and his long time friend Gauguin Paul. These two individuals are well known for having come up with the idea of employing areas having saturated color impressions, which they had borrowed from Tahiti’s work. Tahiti’s work is thus known to have played a significant role towards this kind of art (Freeman 23).
While a number of artists have been known to have pushed this kind of art from its level to another, the greatest achiever in Fauvism was Henri Matisse whose contribution are very great to an extent of being named the father of Fauvism. Addre Derain has also played a greater role as Henri since their works were able to give an exact and durable meaning to this kind of art movement. However, despite all their effortless contributions, it is necessary to note their movement would not last for a long time as many might have imagined. After their paintings and contributions, it has been noted that new breed of artists and painters had been after a new breed of artistic impressions, and hence such a development saw the successful end of Fauvism later in the 1910s. Some of the individuals include the likes Picasso and Braque who would pioneer the piece of art to Cubism (Dickermann 66). However, the Fauvism movement was strong enough and able to pioneer the realization of other movements.
Futurism, on the other hand, was able to develop and become a social and an artistic movement. Futurism is known to have originated somewhere in Italy in the years of the early twentieth century. Because of this, this had been largely noted to be an Italian movement and art phenomenon (Gentile 53). However, there were some similar developments in Britain and Russia, and in some other parts of the world. With this kind of art movement, the Futurists were not to be engaged in practicing in different art medium so that it would comprise of things like sculptures, paintings, graphic designs, ceramics, industrial elemental designs, theater elements, interior patterns and designs, textile arts, films, music, literature, and even architectural designs. This kind of understanding thus makes the movement to have been seen as the right way to the future of human art and creation of designs. This kind of movement in art was hence able to motivate and influence the development of other artistic movements such as Dada and Constructivism (Gentile 57).
One of the greatest artists was Giacomo Balla who has been known as the greatest painter within the Futurism period. He was born in Italy and later left for Rome. At a very young age, his arts and works had been displayed in places like Venice and Rome hence making him a recognized person. Balla would later be influenced by Marinetti Filippo and ended up adopting the Futurism art style and with it; he was able to creat a number of pictorials that depicted light, speed and even movement. Later in 1910 he was able to come up with better designs and painting of the Futurist furniture (Gentile 62). He also designed Futurist clothing which had been liked by a great deal of individuals. He later became the teacher to Umberto Boccioni. Later he took sculpturing hence giving Futurism quite a number of dimensions.
Having been educated at a later age and a student of Balla, Umberto Boccioni was later to become a Futurist. Because of this, his knowledge was as a painter and as a sculptor because he had learned that from his teacher Balla. In addition, his career developed farther after meeting the likes of other futurists through which they were able to work together and take the Futurism movement to a new level (Richter 65). The other important artist with Futurism was Marlio Carli. He later met the acquaintance of Filippo who greatly influenced him and later he became a Futurist. However, he was greatly involved in painting and sculpturing as such, Marlio was keen to write journals and either events which were taking place with Futurism, that playing a great role as a Futurism artist.
Dada was the other important artistic movement, which developed from Futurism. This is to say, all the movements of art had developed accordingly following other past developments, which contributed to their development. Dada, also known as Dadaism, had been a form of cultural movement, and is known to have began somewhere in Switzerland, Zurich during the time of the First World War. This movement is known to have reached its peak between 1916 and 1922. Such movement was primarily comprised by literature, visual arts, poetry, theory, theatre, and even graphical elements and designs. It is one of the purposeful pieces of art, which had been used to ridicule the actions and performances of the participants. However, majority of artists had been noted to refer to it as a meaninglessness form of art for a modernizing world (Locher 69). Dada activities were mainly noted to include the gatherings, some major demonstrations, and publication of journals. These covered works of art, cultural practices, politics, and even human life in general.
The greatest pioneer towards this kind of movement was Grosz George. George was a well-known artist from Germany and was greatly involved in having savage-oriented caricatures and drawings in the 1920s. He is known to have made greater contributions to Dadaism and joined the New Objectivity Alliance. However, his short career in the country ended after he moved to America in the year 1933. His major works are The City, the Metropolis and the Explosion. The second important artist was Hugo Ball. He was born in Germany and developed enormous interest in poetry and art at a young age (Locher 72). He later joined the Dadaism movement and his greatest works include Dada Manifesto and Flight Out of Time. Also, his contributions in the Dadaism were quite enormous since poetry and art were together intertwined towards giving a meaning to Dada movement. Also, we cannot talk of the Dada movement without mentioning the founding father, Tzara Tristan. Tristan is known to have donated the greatest contribution to this movement because he came up with poetry, literature, film, plays and clothing designs thus adding value to the movement, which he greatly proposed. He thus was able to become the founding father of the Dadaism movement (Locher 74). Basically, there are a great deal of contributions from all the artists who were able developed the Dada movement, and this came as a result of the movement of individuals from one place to another in search for techniques. What should be noted is that, all the artistic movements were able to influence one another in such a big way.
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Dickermann, D. Gallery of Human Art. Washington: John Wiley and Sons, 2001.
Gentile, E. The Struggle for Modernity: Nationalism, Futurism, and Fascism. New York: Praeger Publishers, 2003.
Golding, J. Cubism: A History and an Analysis, 1907-1914. New York: Wittenborn Press, 2001.
Freeman, J. The Fauve Landscape. New York: Abbeville Press, 1990.
John, C. Inheriting Cubism: The Impact of Cubism on American Art, 1909-1936. New York: Hollis Taggart Galleries Press, 2001.
Locher, D. Unacknowledged Roots and Blatant Imitation: Postmodernism and Dada Movement. Electronic Journal of Sociology, 4 (1), 43-88.
Richter, H. Dada: Art and Anti-art. New York: Oxford University Press, 1965.